Related Function:

The COVARIANCE.P function returns population covariance, the average of the products of deviations for each data point pair in two data sets.

  • This function was introduced in Excel 2010 and so is not available in earlier versions.
  • The COVARIANCE.P function replaces the COVAR function included in earlier versions of Excel.

Syntax

=COVARIANCE.P(array1,array2)

Arguments

Argument Description
array1 The first array of numeric values
array2 The second array of numeric values

Examples

  A B C D E F
1 Array1 Array2   Formula Result Notes
2 3 16   =COVARIANCE.P(A2:A6,B2:B6) 2.12 Covariance, the average of the products of deviations for each data point pair
3 4 12        
4 10 17        
5 5 11        
6 7 12        

Common Function Error(s)

Problem What went wrong
#N/A Occurs if the two supplied arrays have different lengths
#DIV/0! Occurs if one or both of the supplied arrays are empty

The covariance is a statistical measurement of the strength of the correlation between two sets of variables. Covariance is calculated by the following equation:    

    \[    cov(X,Y) = \frac{ \sum(x - \bar{x})(y - \bar{y}) }{n}    \]

where \bar{x} and \bar{y} are the sample means (averages) of the two sets of values and n is the sample size.

See Wikipedia for more information on covariance.